1 Executive Summary

This Area Profile presents a systematic overview of resident and road risk in Slough. The insight derived from this report can inform the design and development of road safety interventions, underpin local road safety strategies and support local authorities and their stakeholders to secure safer roads and healthier communities across the area. Area Profiles are compiled using analytical techniques which, not only compare long term trends but also use rate-based measures derived from a range of datasets.

Slough's overall resident casualty rate is 17% higher than the national rate, 15% higher than the rate for the South East region and 50% higher than the rate for Berkshire as a whole. Despite this, resident casualty numbers have seen a steady downward trend over the last decade. Forty seven percent of Slough's resident casualties are injured outside of the county. The greatest and over-represented number of Slough's resident casualties are from mosaic type N57; established older households owning city homes in diverse neighbourhoods. Slough's resident casualties are most likely to come from the more deprived 30% of the population. Resident casualties have been broken down into the following cohorts:

  1. Resident child casualty numbers from Slough have seen a broad downward trend since 2016. No resident children have been killed since 2018. Over three quarters of Slough's child casualties were injured in Slough.
  2. Resident older casualty numbers from Slough are relatively low but there has been an overall downward trend over the last ten years. Almost two-thirds of Slough's resident older casualties were injured on Slough's roads.
  3. Resident pedestrian casualty numbers have seen a downward trend since 2014. In 2021, three resident pedestrian casualties were killed. This is the highest number killed in a single year since 2015. Eighty-two percent of slough's resident pedestrian casualties were injured on Slough's roads.
  4. Resident child pedestrian casualty numbers decreased after 2016, although numbers increased in 2021 following the pandemic and the closure of schools.
  5. Resident pedal cyclist casualty numbers have decreased since 2016. Over three-quarters of Slough's pedal cyclist casualties were injured on Slough's roads.

Collision involved resident drivers from Slough have decreased over the last ten years. The rate per 100,000 population is 7% higher than the national rate and 15% higher than the rate for the South East region. The rate for Slough is higher than all other Berkshire authorities. Most of the collision involved drivers are of working age (25-54) and are more likely to come from communities of mosaic type N57, established older households owning city homes in diverse neighbourhoods or type N58, thriving families with good incomes in diverse suburbs

An extra section has been added to this study to specifically look at young drivers (aged 17 to 24). There has been a clear downward trend in numbers of collision involved resident young drivers over the last ten years. However, the rate per 100,000 population is 21% above the national rate and 8% higher than the regional rate. The rate for Slough is higher than all other Berkshire authorities.  Forty-four percent of Slough's resident young drivers were involved in collisions in Slough.

The number of Slough's resident motorcycle riders involved in collisions has fluctuated over the last decade, with a clear downward trend between 2016 and 2020. Interestingly there was a big increase in number in 2021 following the pandemic. The largest number of riders can be found in the 17 to 24 age group. Slough's resident motorcyclist collision involvement rate was 5% higher than the national rate and in line with the rate for the South East region. Slough's motorcyclist involvement rate is lower than all the other Berkshire authorities.

As well as reviewing the risk to residents, this Area Profile has considered collision rates on the local road network. Collisions on Slough's road network have decreased steadily since 2015. Despite this, the collision rate per 100km road on Slough's road network over the last five years was nearly three times higher than the national rate, 126% higher than the rate for the South East region and 172% higher than the overall rate for Berkshire. Slough's collision rate is higher than that of all the other Berkshire authorities.

As with all roads in Slough, collision numbers on urban roads decreased steadily from 2015. The collision rate between 2017 and 2021 was significantly higher than all other Berkshire authorities. Analysis of the collision dynamics at the time of the collision show that almost a third of collisions on urban roads resulted in no vehicle-to-vehicle impact. Where multiple vehicles were involved, 21% involved rear vehicle impact, 9% side impact and 9% head on or another point of the vehicle. The driver actions at the time of the collision show that the highest percentage of collisions on urban roads were when making a right turn followed by a slow manoeuvre such as stopping.

Collision numbers on rural roads in Slough have fallen considerably since 2016 since 2012, There was very little change between 2020 and 2021.  Slough's collision rate between 2017 and 2021 was considerably higher than the national, regional and Berkshire rates. In part this is because Slough is predominately urban and has a much shorter amount of road network that is classified as rural. Analysis of the collision dynamics at the time of the collision show that over half of collisions involved a rear impact, compared to 26% on all roads. Fewer rural road collisions have either no impact, head on impacts or side impacts compared to all roads. The driver actions at the time of the collision show that there were considerably more collisions involving slow vehicle manoeuvres on rural roads compared to all roads. Runoffs were also more prevalent on rural roads.

The factors that contribute towards crashes are also measured. It is entirely possible that a combination of factors led to a collision taking place and the results do not produce figures that represent the number of incidents 'caused' by a single factor. Speeding, as measured by the factor 'exceeding speed limit' or 'Traveling too fast for conditions' has dropped significantly on Slough's roads. Together these factors still play a part in 11% of all collisions, a percentage that is in line with the national percentage and the South East region.

Factors that relate to the road environment have also been measured. Road surface factors including slippery, icy and defective roads are summarised and show a declining trend. In 2021 there were only two road surface collisions in Slough, although one of these was fatal. The recording of 'loss of control', 'Unsafe behaviour' , 'close following', 'distraction', 'impairment' and 'medically unfit' factors have all follow a declining trend.

In summary the road safety risk rates for Slough's residents are higher than the national and regional norm but have decreased over the last ten years. Resident drivers have a higher risk rate than many of the comparator authorities.  

2 Introduction

2.1 Overview

2.1.1 Background

Area Profiles from Agilysis provide overviews of road safety performance within specific local areas. This profile delivers detailed analysis and insight on all injury collisions reported to the police in Slough, as well as casualties and drivers involved in collisions anywhere in Britain who reside in Slough.

Area Profile formats are modular, which affords the flexibility to select topics for inclusion to reflect local needs and allows each section of the report to be used independently if required. Profile design allows authorities to understand general casualty and collision trends affecting their residents and roads, as well as selecting particular topics based on local issues. Experts from Agilysis work with commissioning authorities to ensure that selected topics provide an accurate and relevant assessment. After production of a first Area Profile, updates can be produced in future years covering the entire document or selected existing sections, whilst new topics can also be introduced in response to latest trends and concerns.

2.1.2 Aims and Objectives

The aim of this document is to provide a comprehensive profile of road safety issues affecting Slough’s road network and Slough’s residents, primarily using STATS19 collision data1 and Mosaic socio-demographic classification. Annual trends are presented and analysed for key road user groups, predominantly based on data from the last five full years of available statistics but referring to older figures where appropriate.

The Road Safety Analysis (RSA) analysis tool MAST Online has also been used to investigate trends for Slough’s residents involved in road collisions anywhere in the country, including socio-demographic profiling of casualties and drivers. MAST has been used to allow comparison of Slough’s key road safety issues with those of comparator regions and national figures. The aim is to allow Slough to assess its progress alongside other areas, and work together with neighbours to address common issues.

2.1.3 Analytical Techniques

The analytical techniques employed throughout this Area Profile are detailed in Section 5.1 on Analytical Techniques. Please refer to this section for information on the terminology and data sources used as well to understand methodologies utilised and the structure and scope of the report.

2.2 Profile Configuration

2.2.1 Structure

The Area Profile has been divided into separate analysis of key road user groups. The aim is to allow each section to be used independently if required. This will also allow Slough to update selected sections when appropriate, without a requirement to update the entire document.

Section 3 explores Resident Risk. Resident risk analysis includes examining all of Slough’s resident casualties and resident motor vehicle users in terms of rates, comparisons with other relevant police forces and authorities; residency by small area; trends and socio-demographic analysis. Specific road user groups will also be analysed against these measures. The focus of this section is on how the people of Slough are involved in collisions, rather than what happens on local roads.

Section 4 provides analysis of Road Network Risk. It also examines rates; comparisons; location by small area; and trends on Slough’s roads. Breakdowns by rurality classification of road are also included in this section.

Section 5 includes Appendices detailing all Mosaic Types and the profile and distribution of specific Mosaic Types relevant to Slough. It also contains data tables for all analysis referred to in this Area Profile.

2.2.2 Scope

All figures included in this report are based on STATS 19 collision data. The residents section covers casualties and motor vehicle users involved in collisions who are residents of Slough, regardless of where in Britain the collision occurred. Resident analysis in this profile is based on the national STATS19 dataset as provided to Road Safety Analysis by the Department for Transport for publication in MAST Online over the five-year period between 2017 and 2021 inclusive. For a more complete explanation, please refer to 5.1.1 on methodology for calculating resident risk.

In contrast, the road network section covers collisions which occurred on Slough’s roads, regardless of where those involved reside. Network analysis is also based on the national STATS19 dataset over the five-year period between 2017 and 2021 inclusive. For a more complete explanation, please refer to 5.1.1 on methodology for calculating network collision risk.

3 Slough Resident Risk

For information about the provenance and scope of data included in this section, please refer to section 2.2.2. For an explanation of the methodologies employed throughout this section, please refer to 5.1.1.

3.1 Slough Resident Casualties

This section examines all casualties who were residents of Slough at the time of injury. For information about Slough’s resident motor vehicle users involved in collisions on all roads, please refer to section 3.2.

3.1.1 All Resident Casualties

3.1.1.1 Rates

Figure 3.1 shows the resident casualty rates for Slough compared to the national and regional rates, as well as the most similar comparators.

Between 2017 and 2021, Slough had a resident casualty rate of 263 casualties per year, per 100,000 population.

Figure 3.1: Annual average Slough resident casualties per 100,000 population (2017 - 2021)

Annual average Slough resident casualties per 100,000 population (2017 - 2021)

3.1.1.2 Comparisons

Slough’s resident casualty rate was 17% higher than the national rate, and 15% higher than the regional rate for the South East. This was 50% higher than the overall rate for Berkshire as a whole. Within Berkshire, Slough had the highest resident casualty rate. When compared against the most similar comparator authorities, Slough’s resident casualty rate was in line with that of Sutton. This was lower than the rates of Luton and Hounslow, but higher than the rates of Hillingdon, Thurrock and Derby.

3.1.1.2.1 Residency by Small Area

Figure 3.2 shows the home location of Slough’s resident casualties by lower layer super output area (LSOA). The thematic map is coloured by resident casualties per year per population of LSOA.

The highest resident casualty rates can be found amongst those living in and around Britwell, Colnbrook, Chalvey, Wexham Lea, and Langley.

Figure 3.2: Slough resident casualties home location by LSOA, casualties per year per 100,000 population (2017-2021)